Exercise 3

Type one word into each gap.

1He got the job in of the fact that he didn't have any qualifications.

2We spoke very quietly so not to disturb the other campers.

3 I'm not a vegetarian, I rarely eat meat.

4He still gets up at 6.30, though he is retired now.

5I worked late in to finish the report.

6We enjoyed the trip the bad weather.

7They shouted so everybody could hear them.

8I've never liked music. , I really enjoyed their concert.

9On our way home we stopped a cup of coffee.

10She loves him in spite of the that he drinks too much.


 

 

Clauses of contrast and purpose – grammar chart

 
Clauses of contrast and purpose

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Clauses of contrast

 

although, even though

 
We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

  • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
  • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.

 

however

 
We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
  • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

 

despite / in spite of

 
Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

  • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
  • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

  • We went out despite/In spite of the fact that it was raining. 

 

Clauses of purpose

 

to + infinitive

 
The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

  • The student worked hard to pass the test. 

 

in order to/so as to + infinitive

In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

  • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
  • He left home early in order not to be late.
  • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
  • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 

 

so that + clause

 
We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (could, can, would, etc.)

  • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
  • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 

 

for + noun

 
We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

  • We went to the bar for a drink.
  • Would you like to go the the park for a run?