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  • Clauses of contrast and purpose

    Exercise 2

    Choose the correct option for each gap below.

    Page 1 of 2

    1 He won the race _______ being in his best form.
    2 I finished the book _______ I didn't like it at all.
    3 I didn't tell her the truth _______ hurt her feelings.
    4 The house is very well maintained _______ being an old property.
    5 I'm training very hard _______ improve my personal best time.


  • Clauses of contrast and purpose – Grammar chart

    A grammar chart explaining clauses of contrast and purpose, including examples and structures such as "although/even though," "however," "in spite of/despite," and "to/in order to/so as to."

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    Clauses of contrast

    Although, even though

    We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

    • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
    • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.


    We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.

    • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
    • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

    Despite/in spite of

    Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

    • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
    • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

    We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

    • We went out despite/In spite of the fact that it was raining. 

    Clauses of purpose

    To + infinitive

    The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

    • The student worked hard to pass the test. 

    In order to/so as to + infinitive

    In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

    • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
    • He left home early in order not to be late.
    • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
    • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 

    So that + clause

    We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (could, can, would, etc.)

    • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
    • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 

    For + noun

    We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

    • We went to the bar for a drink.
    • Would you like to go to the park for a run?
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