Grammar » B2 Grammar lessons and exercises » Clauses of contrast, purpose, reason and result
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  • Clauses of contrast, purpose, reason and result

    Exercise 1

    Choose the correct option to complete the following  clauses of contrast, purpose, reason and result.

    1The price of oil has gone down the increase in production.

    2 a lot has been done, we need to continue working hard.

    3You need to find a more user-friendly name people can access it more quickly.

    4 the weather conditions, the fire could not be contained.

    5When you argue with your partner you may say things that you don't really want to say. , you should choose your words carefully before you speak.

    6I'm going to say only a few words take too much of your time.

    7They didn't find any proof of illegal activity and , the investigation with regard to these companies was terminated.

    8I recorded the match we want to watch it again.

    9Nobody is perfect; , nobody's decisions are perfect either.

    10 you are not listening to me, I'll just stop talking.


  • Clauses of contrast

    Although, even though

    We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

    • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
    • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.


    We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however at the beginning of the second sentence after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However is ALWAYS followed by a comma.

    • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
    • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

    We can also use however at the end of the sentence.

    • We didn’t like the hotel. We had a fantastic time, however

    Despite/in spite of

    Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

    • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
    • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

    We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

    • We went out despite/in spite of the fact that it was raining. 


    Clauses of purpose

    To + infinitive

    The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

    • The student worked hard to pass the test. 

    In order to/so as to + infinitive

    In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

    • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
    • He left home early in order not to be late.
    • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
    • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 

    We can also use the structure in order for someone/something to do something.

    • We need to mobilize the media in order for the Government to listen to us.
    • Three different surgeries were necessary in order for him to survive.

    So that + clause

    We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector, e.g. could, can, would, etc.

    • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
    • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 

    For + noun

    We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

    • We went to the bar for a drink.
    • Would you like to go to the park for a run?

    We can use for + –ing verb (instead of to + infinitive) to talk about the purpose of an object or action when we use the verb used or when we imply it.

    • This knife is (used) for cutting plastic.
    • Schools are for educating, not for entertaining.

    In case + clause

    To express purpose, we can also use in case + subject + verb. We use this form to talk about precautions,  when we do something because something not wanted might happen.

    • Take the umbrella in case it rains. (=take the umbrella so that you won’t get wet if it rains)
    • I won’t tell Ann in case she tells everyone else. 


    Clauses of reason

    When we want to explain the reason why something happened or why someone did something, we use a clause of reason introduced by a conjunction (as, since, because) or a noun phrase introduced by because of, due toowing to, or on account of.


    We use because before a clause (subject + verb). It can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence (at the end is more common). A comma is used when the clause of reason is at the beginning of the sentence.

    • We didn’t go because it was raining heavily. 
    • Because the event was cancelled, they lost their deposits. 


    We use as and since in a very similar way to because. They are followed by subject + verb and can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. However, as and since are more formal expressions, and more common in written than in spoken English.

    • The government urged people to stay indoors since/as more rain is forecast for the entire weekend.
    • As/Since the roads were blocked, the victims had to be rescued by helicopter. 

    Because of

    We use because of before a noun.

    • The concert was postponed because of the heavy rain. 

    Due to/owing to/on account of

    We can also use due to/owing to/on account of before a noun. They mean ‘because of’ but are more formal.

    • The event was cancelled due to/owing to/on account of lack of interest. 
    • I couldn’t enjoy the meal due to/owing to/on account of their constant arguing. 


    Clauses of result

    We use clauses of result to talk about the result of an action or situation.


    We can use so + subject + verb at the end of a sentence to mean ‘this is why’.

    • We didn’t have anything to do, so we decided to rent a film. 
    • I worked very hard today, so I’m exhausted. 

    For this reason

    We normally use for this reason at the beginning of a sentence. We use a comma after it.

    • Rent is very expensive in Boston. For this reason, we decided to move to Ohio. 
    • He threatened to commit suicide. For this reason, we kept him under surveillance. 

    As a result/consequently/therefore

    As a result, consequently and therefore are more formal and more common in written language. They are normally used at the beginning of a sentence, followed by a comma.

    • The flight was delayed due to the storm. As a result, many passengers complained.  
    • Animals were his only true passion. Therefore/Consequently, he decided to study biology. 

    We can also use consequently and therefore in mid position (before the verb, after be as the main verb, or after the first auxiliary verb).

    • You have been a real asset to the company. We have therefore/consequently decided to promote you. 
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