Exercise 3

Fill in the gaps in the text with words from the list.

although     as     as a result      due to     However    in case    in order     so     so as to     so that     therefore

We were the greatest fans of Daft Rockers and 0 therefore we were really looking forward to going to their concert. It had been announced that it would probably be the band’s last concert, and 1 , thousands people had bought their tickets online much in advance 2  they wouldn’t miss the opportunity. As soon as the online sales were open, we bought our tickets, and we even bought extra tickets 3  some of our friends also wanted to go. Nothing could go wrong, or so we thought. 4 , two hours before the concert, a terrible storm hit the city and we were informed that it had been cancelled 5  the adverse weather conditions. We were in shock. We quickly went online 6  see when the concert was rescheduled for. We read that the members of the band had expressed their disappointment and the organisers had announced that all the people with a ticket could contact their ticket seller 7 to get a refund. 8  they didn’t inform of a new date for the concert, we were sure that it had been permanently cancelled, 9  we decided to ask for a refund. When we'd got our money back, we read that the concert had been rescheduled for the following weekend. We immediately decided to buy the tickets again, but 10 we did it as soon as we read the news, we were too late; the tickets were all sold out.



Clauses of contrast


although, even though

We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

  • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
  • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.



We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however at the beginning of the second sentence after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However is ALWAYS followed by a comma.

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
  • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

We can also use however at the end of the sentence.

  • We didn’t like the hotel. We had a fantastic time, however


despite/in spite of

Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

  • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
  • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

  • We went out despite/in spite of the fact that it was raining. 


Clauses of purpose


to + infinitive

The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

  • The student worked hard to pass the test. 


in order to/so as to + infinitive

In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

  • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
  • He left home early in order not to be late.
  • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
  • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 


so that + clause

We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector, e.g. could, can, would, etc.

  • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
  • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 


for + noun

We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

  • We went to the bar for a drink.
  • Would you like to go the the park for a run?

We can use for + –ing verb (instead of to + infinitive) to talk about the purpose of an object or action when we use the verb used or when we imply it.

  • This knife is (used) for cutting plastic.
  • Schools are for educating, not for entertaining.


in case + clause

To express purpose, we can also use in case + subject + verb. We use this form to talk about precautions, when we do something because something not wanted might happen.

  • Take the umbrella in case it rains. (=take the umbrella so that you won’t get wet if it rains)
  • I won’t tell Ann in case she tells everyone else. 


Clauses of reason

When we want to explain the reason why something happened or why someone did something, we use a clause of reason introduced by a conjunction (as, since, because) or a noun phrase introduced by because of, due toowing to, or on account of.


We use because before a clause (subject + verb). It can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence (at the end is more common). A comma is used when the clause of reason is at the beginning of the sentence.

  • We didn’t go because it was raining heavily. 
  • Because the event was cancelled, they lost their deposits. 



We use as and since in a very similar way to because. They are followed by subject + verb and can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. However, as and since are more formal expressions, and more common in written than in spoken English.

  • The government urged people to stay indoors since/as more rain is forecast for the entire weekend.
  • As/Since the roads were blocked, the victims had to be rescued by helicopter. 


because of

We use because of before a noun.

  • The concert was postponed because of the heavy rain. 


due to/owing to/on account of

We can also use due to/owing to/on account of before a noun. They mean ‘because of’ but are more formal.

  • The event was cancelled due to/owing to/on account of lack of interest. 
  • I couldn’t enjoy the meal due to/owing to/on account oftheir constant arguing. 


Clauses of result

We use clauses of result to talk about the result of an action or situation.


We can use so + subject + verb at the end of a sentence to mean ‘this is why’.

  • We didn’t have anything to do, so we decided to rent a film. 
  • I worked very hard today, so I’m exhausted. 


for this reason

We normally use for this reason at the beginning of a sentence. We use a comma after it.

  • Rent is very expensive in Boston. For this reason, we decided to move to Ohio. 
  • He threatened to commit suicide. For this reason, kept him under surveillance. 


as a result/consequently/therefore

As a result, consequently and therefore are more formal and more common in written language. They are normally used at the beginning of a sentence, followed by a comma.

  • The flight was delayed due to the storm. As a result, many passengers complained.  
  • Animals were his only and true passion. Therefore/Consequently, he decided to study biology. 

We can also use  consequently and therefore in mid position (before the verb, after be as main verb, or after the first auxiliary verb).

  • You have been a real asset to the company. We have therefore/consequently decided to promote you.