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  • Clauses of contrast and purpose

    Exercise 1

    Choose the correct option to complete the sentences below.

    1 being rich, he is rather unhappy.

    2 I know it's good and affordable. , I don't like it.

    3 It is better to do it slowly make a mistake.

    4 he got up late, he arrived in time for the interview.

    5 I'm studying English more job opportunities.

    6 We bought more T-shirts everyone could have one.

    7 that they are good friends, they argue a lot.

    8 She noted it down forget.

    9 his health isn't too good, he never misses a class.

    10 He set his alarm remember to take his medication.


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    Clauses of contrast and purpose

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    Clauses of contrast

    Although, even though

    We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

    • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
    • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.


    We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.

    • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
    • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 

    Despite/in spite of

    Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

    • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
    • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

    We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

    • We went out despite/In spite of the fact that it was raining. 


    Clauses of purpose

    To + infinitive

    The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

    • The student worked hard to pass the test. 

    In order to/so as to + infinitive

    In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

    • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
    • He left home early in order not to be late.
    • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
    • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 

    So that + clause

    We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (could, can, would, etc.)

    • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
    • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 

    For + noun

    We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

    • We went to the bar for a drink.
    • Would you like to go to the park for a run?
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