Exercise 1

Choose the correct option to complete the sentences below.

1 being rich, he is rather unhappy.

2 I know it's good and affordable. , I don't like it.

3 It is better to do it slowly make a mistake.

4 he got up late, he arrived in time for the interview.

5 I'm studying English more job opportunities.

6 We bought more T-shirts everyone could have one.

7 that they are good friends, they argue a lot.

8 She noted it down forget.

9 his health isn't too good, he never misses a class.

10 He set his alarm remember to take his medication.



Clauses of contrast and purpose – grammar chart

Clauses of contrast and purpose

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Clauses of contrast


although, even though

We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

  • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
  • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.



We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
  • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 


despite / in spite of

Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

  • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
  • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

  • We went out despite/In spite of the fact that it was raining. 


Clauses of purpose


to + infinitive

The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

  • The student worked hard to pass the test. 


in order to/so as to + infinitive

In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

  • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
  • He left home early in order not to be late.
  • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
  • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 


so that + clause

We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (could, can, would, etc.)

  • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
  • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 


for + noun

We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

  • We went to the bar for a drink.
  • Would you like to go the the park for a run?