Exercise 1

Choose the correct connectors to complete the following clauses of contrast, purpose and reason.

1 she was under a lot of pressure, she never complained.

2He was very talented. , he was very lazy and lacked ambition.

3They won the match not having their star player.

4We arrived earlier we could sit in the first row.

5She is very good. , she is not the best.

6 his age, he did a very good job.

7 she is very good, she is not the best.

8We will continue working hard to reach a solution.

9Sometimes workers eat in the garden  fight the stress of their jobs.

10He had to deactivate his Facebook account the constant threats.



Clauses of contrast, purpose and reason – summary table

Clauses of contrast, purpose and reason

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Clauses of contrast


although, even though

We can use although/even though at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence followed by a clause (subject + verb). We NEVER use a comma after although or event though.

  • Although/Even though we had a bad game, we won. 
  • We won, although/even though we had a bad game.



We use however to connect two different sentences. We normally use however after a full stop (.) or a semi-colon (;). However should ALWAYS be followed by a comma.

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a fantastic time. 
  • We went to the beach; however, the weather wasn’t perfect. 


despite / in spite of

Despite and in spite of are normally followed by a noun or a –ing verb. They can go at the beginning or in the middle of the sentence.

  • Despite/In spite of the rain, we went to the concert.
  • They arrived despite/in spite of leaving very early. 

We can use a clause (subject + verb) after despite/in spite of + the fact that.

  • We went out despite/in spite of the fact that it was raining. 


Clauses of purpose


to + infinitive

The most common way to express purpose in English is to + infinitive.

  • The student worked hard to pass the test. 


in order to/so as to + infinitive

In order to or so as to + infinitive are more common in formal English, mainly in writing. The negative forms are in order not to and so as not to + infinitive.

  • We were asked to stay in order to finish the project. 
  • He left home early in order not to be late.
  • Use a plastic hammer so as to avoid damage. 
  • They walked quietly so as not to wake up the children. 


so that + clause

We can also use so that + subject + verb to express purpose. We normally use a modal verb with this connector. (could, can, would, etc.)

  • We left early so that we could park near the centre. 
  • He made some flashcards so that it would be easier for his mum to remember the instructions. 


for + noun

We can also use for + noun to express purpose.

  • We went to the bar for a drink.
  • Would you like to go the the park for a run?


Clauses of reason

When we want to explain the reason why something happened or why someone did something, we use a clause of reason introduced by a conjunction (as, since, because) or a noun phrase introduced by because of or due to.


We use because before a clause (subject + verb). It can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence (at the end is more common). A comma is used when the clause of reason is at the beginning of the sentence.

  • We didn’t go because it was raining heavily. 
  • Because the event was cancelled, they lost their deposits. 



We use as and since in a very similar way to because. They are followed by subject + verb and can be used at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. However, as and since are more formal expressions, and more common in written than in spoken English.

  • The government urged people to stay indoors since/as more rain is forecast for the entire weekend.
  • As/Since the roads were blocked, the victims had to be rescued by helicopter. 


because of

We use because of before a noun.

  • The concert was postponed because of the heavy rain. 


due to

Due to means ‘because of’ although it is more formal. We also use due to before a noun.

  • The event was cancelled due to lack of interest. 
  • I couldn’t enjoy the meal due to their constant arguing.