Exercise 1

Choose so, because, but, although to complete the sentences below.

1We couldn't find a taxi, we walked home

2 it was very cold, she wasn't wearing a coat.

3I woke up there was a noise.

4I called him his mobile was turned off.

5 she's very nice, she doesn't have many friends.

6There was nothing on TV, I went to bed.

7All the cafés were full it was a public holiday.

8She studied quite hard she failed the exam.

9She was crying her team lost the match

10They wanted to win it was impossible






However means ‘but’.

However is normally used at the beginning of a sentence, before a comma (,) and after a full stop (.) or a semicolon (;).

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, he had a good time.
  • I would like to have a dog; however, my husband is allergic to dogs. 



Although means ‘despite the fact that’, or ‘but’.

Although can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. We do NOT use a comma after although; we use although + subject + verb.

  • Although he had a bad leg, he still won the game.
  • I passed the exam, although I hadn’t studied.





We use because + subject + verb.

  • We had to cancel the concert because it was raining.
  • I didn’t call you because I didn’t want to worry you.


because of

We use because of + noun.

  • We had to cancel the concert because of the rain.
  • Many shops had to close because of the economic situation. 





So is the most common connector to express result. It is normally used in the middle of a sentence after (,).

  • We worked hard all morning, so I am very tired now. 
  • The TV is very expensive, so I don’t think I’ll buy it. 





We can use before + noun / -ing verb, or we can use before + subject + verb.

  • Before I have breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before having breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before breakfast, I read a few pages. 



We use can use after + noun / -ing verb, or we can use after + subject + verb.

  • I smoke a cigarette after dinner/ having dinner/ I have dinner.

When we are talking about consecutive actions, we can use then of after that, but we cannot use *after.

  • I got up and had a shower. Then/After that, I made breakfast. (NOT After, I made breakfast).



We use while + subject + verb to talk about actions happening at the same time, simultaneously.

  • I read the newspaper while I was waiting.


as soon as, when, once

As soon as, when, and once have a similar meaning. As soon as means ‘immediately when’.

  • As soon as/when/once I get home, I’ll finish my homework.

We use the present simple, and NOT will, to express future after as soon as, when, and once.

  • When I get home, I’ll call you. (NOT when I will get home)

We use a comma after the first part of the sentence when we start with before, after, while, as soon as, etc. But we do not use a comma if we use before, after, while, as soon as, etc in the second part of the sentence.

  • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth. 
  • I brush my teeth before I go to bed.