Grammar » A2 Grammar lessons and exercises » However, although, because, so, and time connectors
Exercises Explanation Downloads
  • However, although, because, so, and time connectors

    Exercise 1

    Choose so, because, but, although to complete the sentences below.

    1We couldn't find a taxi, we walked home

    2 it was very cold, she wasn't wearing a coat.

    3I woke up there was a noise.

    4I called him his mobile was turned off.

    5 she's very nice, she doesn't have many friends.

    6There was nothing on TV, I went to bed.

    7All the cafés were full it was a public holiday.

    8She studied quite hard she failed the exam.

    9She was crying her team lost the match

    10They wanted to win it was impossible


     

  • Contrast

    However

    However means ‘but’.

    However is normally used at the beginning of a sentence, before a comma (,) and after a full stop (.) or a semicolon (;).

    • We didn’t like the hotel. However, he had a good time.
    • I would like to have a dog; however, my husband is allergic to dogs. 

    Although

    Although means ‘despite the fact that’, or ‘but’.

    Although can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. We do NOT use a comma after although; we use although + subject + verb.

    • Although he had a bad leg, he still won the game.
    • I passed the exam, although I hadn’t studied.

     

    Reason

    Because

    We use because + subject + verb.

    • We had to cancel the concert because it was raining.
    • I didn’t call you because I didn’t want to worry you.

    Because of

    We use because of + noun.

    • We had to cancel the concert because of the rain.
    • Many shops had to close because of the economic situation. 

     

    Result

    So

    So is the most common connector to express result. It is normally used in the middle of a sentence after (,).

    • We worked hard all morning, so I am very tired now. 
    • The TV is very expensive, so I don’t think I’ll buy it. 

     

    Time

    Before

    We can use before + noun / -ing verb, or we can use before + subject + verb.

    • Before I have breakfast, I read a few pages. 
    • Before having breakfast, I read a few pages. 
    • Before breakfast, I read a few pages. 

    After

    We use can use after + noun / -ing verb, or we can use after + subject + verb.

    • I smoke a cigarette after dinner/ having dinner/ I have dinner.

    When we are talking about consecutive actions, we can use then of after that, but we cannot use *after.

    • I got up and had a shower. Then/After that, I made breakfast. (NOT After, I made breakfast).

    While

    We use while + subject + verb to talk about actions happening at the same time, simultaneously.

    • I read the newspaper while I was waiting.

    As soon as, when, once

    As soon as, when, and once have a similar meaning. As soon as means ‘immediately when’.

    • As soon as/when/once I get home, I’ll finish my homework.

    We use the present simple, and NOT will, to express future after as soon as, when, and once.

    • When I get home, I’ll call you. (NOT when I will get home)

    We use a comma after the first part of the sentence when we start with before, after, while, as soon as, etc. But we do not use a comma if we use before, after, while, as soon as, etc in the second part of the sentence.

    • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth. 
    • I brush my teeth before I go to bed. 
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