Exercise 3

Fill in the gaps with the connectors in the box below.

after / after that / although / as soon as / because / because of / before / however / once / so (x2)

1 I arrived home, I put on my pyjamas and I lay down on the sofa. I was exhausted and I wasn’t very hungry, 2 I decided not to have anything for dinner. I just got a glass of milk from the fridge. 3 , I lay on the sofa and I turned on the TV 4 I wanted to watch a film. 5 , there was nothing interesting on TV. I decided to go to bed, 6 I wasn’t very sleepy. Once I was in bed, I remembered that I had to take my medication. I can’t sleep well at night 7 my insomnia, 8 I always take a sleeping tablet 9 I go to bed. 10 taking the sleeping tablet, I went back to bed and I could finally sleep.






However means ‘but’.

However is normally used at the beginning of a sentence, before a comma (,) and after a full stop (.) or a semicolon (;).

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, he had a good time.
  • I would like to have a dog; however, my husband is allergic to dogs. 



Although means ‘despite the fact that’, or ‘but’.

Although can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. We do NOT use a comma after although; we use although + subject + verb.

  • Although he had a bad leg, he still won the game.
  • I passed the exam, although I hadn’t studied.





We use because + subject + verb.

  • We had to cancel the concert because it was raining.
  • I didn’t call you because I didn’t want to worry you.


because of

We use because of + noun.

  • We had to cancel the concert because of the rain.
  • Many shops had to close because of the economic situation. 





So is the most common connector to express result. It is normally used in the middle of a sentence after (,).

  • We worked hard all morning, so I am very tired now. 
  • The TV is very expensive, so I don’t think I’ll buy it. 





We can use before + noun / -ing verb, or we can use before + subject + verb.

  • Before I have breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before having breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before breakfast, I read a few pages. 



We use can use after + noun / -ing verb, or we can use after + subject + verb.

  • I smoke a cigarette after dinner/ having dinner/ I have dinner.

When we are talking about consecutive actions, we can use then of after that, but we cannot use *after.

  • I got up and had a shower. Then/After that, I made breakfast. (NOT After, I made breakfast).



We use while + subject + verb to talk about actions happening at the same time, simultaneously.

  • I read the newspaper while I was waiting.


as soon as, when, once

As soon as, when, and once have a similar meaning. As soon as means ‘immediately when’.

  • As soon as/when/once I get home, I’ll finish my homework.

We use the present simple, and NOT will, to express future after as soon as, when, and once.

  • When I get home, I’ll call you. (NOT when I will get home)

We use a comma after the first part of the sentence when we start with before, after, while, as soon as, etc. But we do not use a comma if we use before, after, while, as soon as, etc in the second part of the sentence.

  • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth. 
  • I brush my teeth before I go to bed.