so-too, neither-either – grammar charts
A is or does the same as B
To say that A is or does the same as B, we can use so + auxiliary verb + subject in affirmative sentences and neither + auxiliary verb + subject in negative sentences.
- A: “I am from London.” B: “So am I.” (=I am from London too.)
- A: “I’m not tired.” B: “Neither am I.” (=I am not tired either.)
What auxiliary verb do we need?
After so/neither we use the same auxiliary or modal verb as in the first sentence: be, do, have, can, will, must, etc.
- A: “Tomas is not going to the party.” B: “Neither is Sally.”
- A: “I’ll be here at 7.” B: “So will I.”
- A: “Lisa can play the guitar.” B: “So can Tim.”
When there isn’t an auxiliary or modal verb in the first sentence, we use do/does in the present and did in the past.
- A: “I want to leave.” B: “So do I.”
- A: “George loves chocolate.” B: “So does Bruno.”
- A: “I went to bed very late.” B: “So did I.”
nor = neither
We can use nor instead of neither.
- A: “I wasn’t ready.” B: “Nor/Neither was I.”
neither is negative
Neither/nor is a negative word, like not. For this reason, the auxiliary verb after neither should be affirmative.
- A: “I didn’t see the film yesterday.” B: “Neither did I.” (NOT
Neither didn’t I)
- A: “Ray couldn’t answer the question.” B: “Neither could Jimmy.” (NOT
Neither couldn’t Jimmy.)
Another way of saying that A is or does the same as B, is the use of too or either at the end of the sentence. We use too for affirmative sentences and either for negative sentences.
- A: “I want to leave.” B: “I want to leave too.”
- A: “I didn’t go.” B: “I didn’t go either.”