Explanations » A2 Grammar Explanations » However, although, because, so, and time connectors
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  • However, although, because, so

    Grammar chart explaining the use of conjunctions 'however,' 'although,' 'because,' and 'so' for contrast and result, with sentence examples.

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    Clauses of contrast


    However means ‘but’.

    However is normally used at the beginning of a sentence, before a comma (,) and after a full stop (.) or a semicolon (;).

    • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a good time.
    • I would like to have a dog; however, my husband is allergic to dogs. 


    Although means ‘despite the fact that’ or ‘but’.

    Although can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. We do NOT use a comma after although; we use although + subject + verb.

    • Although he had a bad leg, he still won the game.
    • I passed the exam, although I hadn’t studied.

    Clauses of reason


    We use because + subject + verb.

    • We had to cancel the concert because it was raining.
    • I didn’t call you because I didn’t want to worry you.

    Because of

    We use because of + noun.

    • We had to cancel the concert because of the rain.
    • Many shops had to close because of the economic situation. 

    Clauses of result


    So is the most common connector to express result. It is normally used in the middle of a sentence after (,).

    • We worked hard all morning, so I am very tired now. 
    • The TV is very expensive, so I don’t think I’ll buy it. 

    Time connectors

    Grammar chart detailing time connectors 'before', 'after', 'while', 'as soon as', 'when', and 'once' with examples and usage rules.

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    We can use before + noun / -ing verb, or we can use before + subject + verb.

    • Before I have breakfast, I read a few pages. 
    • Before having breakfast, I read a few pages. 
    • Before breakfast, I read a few pages. 


    We can use after + noun / -ing verb, or we can use after + subject + verb.

    • I smoke a cigarette after dinner/ having dinner/ I have dinner.

    When we are talking about consecutive actions, we use then of after that, but NOT after.

    • I got up and had a shower. After, I made breakfast. blank
    • I got up and had a shower. Then/After that, I made breakfast. blank


    We use while + subject + verb to talk about actions happening at the same time, simultaneously.

    • I read the newspaper while I was waiting.

    As soon as, when, once

    As soon as, when, and once have a similar meaning. As soon as means ‘immediately when’.

    • As soon as/when/once I get home, I’ll finish my homework.

    Common mistakes

    We use the present simple and NOT will to express future after before, after, as soon as, when, and once.

    • When I will get home, I’ll call you. blank
    • When I get home, I’ll call you. blank

    We use a comma after the first part of the sentence when we start with before, after, while, as soon as, etc. But we do not use a comma if we use before, after, while, as soon as, etc in the second part of the sentence.

    • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth. 
    • I brush my teeth before I go to bed.