Explanations » A2 Grammar Explanations » However, although, because, so, and time connectors



However means ‘but’.

However is normally used at the beginning of a sentence, before a comma (,) and after a full stop (.) or a semicolon (;).

  • We didn’t like the hotel. However, we had a good time.
  • I would like to have a dog; however, my husband is allergic to dogs. 


Although means ‘despite the fact that’, or ‘but’.

Although can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. We do NOT use a comma after although; we use although + subject + verb.

  • Although he had a bad leg, he still won the game.
  • I passed the exam, although I hadn’t studied.




We use because + subject + verb.

  • We had to cancel the concert because it was raining.
  • I didn’t call you because I didn’t want to worry you.

Because of

We use because of + noun.

  • We had to cancel the concert because of the rain.
  • Many shops had to close because of the economic situation. 




So is the most common connector to express result. It is normally used in the middle of a sentence after (,).

  • We worked hard all morning, so I am very tired now. 
  • The TV is very expensive, so I don’t think I’ll buy it. 




We can use before + noun / -ing verb, or we can use before + subject + verb.

  • Before I have breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before having breakfast, I read a few pages. 
  • Before breakfast, I read a few pages. 


We use can use after + noun / -ing verb, or we can use after + subject + verb.

  • I smoke a cigarette after dinner/ having dinner/ I have dinner.

When we are talking about consecutive actions, we can use then of after that, but we cannot use *after.

  • I got up and had a shower. Then/After that, I made breakfast. (NOT After, I made breakfast).


We use while + subject + verb to talk about actions happening at the same time, simultaneously.

  • I read the newspaper while I was waiting.

As soon as, when, once

As soon as, when, and once have a similar meaning. As soon as means ‘immediately when’.

  • As soon as/when/once I get home, I’ll finish my homework.

We use the present simple, and NOT will, to express future after as soon as, when, and once.

  • When I get home, I’ll call you. (NOT when I will get home)

We use a comma after the first part of the sentence when we start with before, after, while, as soon as, etc. But we do not use a comma if we use before, after, while, as soon as, etc in the second part of the sentence.

  • Before I go to bed, I brush my teeth. 
  • I brush my teeth before I go to bed.