this/these= here, that/those= there

 
This, that, these, those

Download full-size image from Pinterest

 

this, these

 
We use this and these for things that are here (near). This is singular and these is plural.

  • This is my new watch. 
  • These are my sisters Anna and Jenny. 

 

that, those

 
We use that and those for things that are there (not near). That is singular and those is plural.

  • That man is very strange. 
  • I need those boxes over there. 

 

With a noun or without a noun

 
We can use this, that, these, those with a noun (this box, that car, etc.) or without a noun.

  • This watch is very expensive. 
  • I like that woman in the park. 
  • Who is that(= that person)
  • ‘What are those?’ ‘They are old pictures.’

 

This is John (introductions and on the phone)

 
We use this is when we introduce people and on the telephone.

  • Hi, this is Tim. (Tim on the telephone)
  • Laura: ‘Hi, Sara. This is my friend Paul.’ Sara: ‘Hi, Paul. Nice to meet you.’